Ideology in Education—A Critical Discourse Analysis of Chinese and Western Ideolo gical Differences in Education from Are Our Kids Tough Enough? —Chinese School
Subjectscross-cultural ideological difference; cross-cultural; comparative analysis; educational ideology; critical discourse analysis
Research on ideology in education has illustrated that ideologies are grounded in educational pedagogies. However, little is known about cross-cultural ideological differences in education. The researcher conducted a comparative analysis of Chinese educational ideologies and Western educational ideologies through a case study of BBC’s documentary Are Our Kids Tough Enough?—Chinese School from a critical linguistics’ point of view. A mixed research design involving a visual document analysis and questionnaires was implemented to conduct the research. The documentary was chosen as the data source because the participants reflected some representative Chinese and British ideologies. All the utterances (including non-verbal behaviors) were first transcribed to a Word document. Fifty segments of discourse were selected to provide data for linguistic analysis. Based on Fairclough’s three-dimensional model of conducting critical discourse analysis, a methodological framework built upon discourse analysis and Rogers’ methodological framework for doing critical discourse analysis in education was used to code the linguistic features of the participants’ utterances. Six sets of hypotheses were tested using Chi-square distributions. Through critical discourse analysis, educational ideologies were shown, and then comparative methods were used to explain why people held such ideologies and why ideological confrontations occurred. Major findings of the study include: 1) classroom language is heavily influenced by one’s ideologies; 2) there exists a high correlation between social and cultural environment and people’s educational ideologies in a given society; and 3) ideology is both stable and dynamic. This study enhances people’s understanding of the relationship between language, education, and ideology in educational settings, improves people’s awareness of the “taken-for-granted” ideologies through education and potential misunderstandings that might be caused by this effect, and raise teacher’s awareness of intercultural communication when teaching students from different cultural background.
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